It has been known for over 50 years that prostate cancer needs the male hormone, testosterone, to grow, and that removal of this hormone usually causes the cancer to regress or shrink. This was described by three American Urologists – Huggins, Stephens, and Hodges (who was a medical student at the time) – in their paper “Studies on prostatic cancer: 2. The effects of castration on advanced carcinoma of the prostate gland” (Arch Surg, 43: 209, 1941). This remarkable discovery, which revolutionised the treatment of men with prostate cancer, led to a Nobel Prize for Huggins in 1966.

As a result, hormone treatment was widely recognised as an effective treatment to control the cancer in men with advanced disease. Recently, we have started to use it in men with early disease in combination with other treatments to improve the chances of long-term control and cure.

Testosterone is produced mainly by the testes, with a little coming from small glands in the abdomen called the adrenals. Testosterone is responsible for maintaining the ‘male’ characteristics, including libido, the ability to achieve erections, promoting beard growth, and maintaining sperm production.

Because feminist theory grows out of direct experience and consciousness actively asserting itself, feminist theory emphasizes context and the importance of identifying experience and claiming it for one’s own

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